array(1) { [0]=> string(108) "
  • [[#cite_ref-0|↑]] This has nothing to do with parent-child relationships of UMOs
  • " } UU - Total Knowledge
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    Current revision (00:57, 13 October 2015) (view source)
    m (Business Assumptions)
     
    == The Goal ==
    == The Goal ==
    -
    UU (Universe University) aims to answer essential and the most pressing challenges to modern education. Nowadays, the core demand to educational systems is to provide for development of independent and critical thinking, creativity and responsibility. These goals surely sound good for anybody but real construction and technology of the modern schools go back to the 17th century and aim to informing and skills' training only. All the rest is up to a teacher. However, these up-to-a-teacher features, despite being in major demand, cannot normally work against the entire system. They either get swallowed by the system and simply turned into yet other forms of informing and training, or they bounce against the wall, break up and get thrown out. No other outcome of educational reforms and innovation could be observed since 19th century in any part of the world. Hence, our understanding is that modern school has to be wholly reconstructed so that the entire system would aim directly to bringing up independent and critical thinking, creativity and responsibility. We believe that in the course of such an educational process information and skills, or generally speaking, knowledge of traditional type will be acquired as a side effect and in a much higher degree.
    +
    Universe University (UU) aims to address the core demand to the modern education: development of independent and critical thinking, creativity and responsibility. However, the general technology of the contemporary schools go back to the 17th century and is directed to informing and skills' training only. That is so for the more than 300 years, while critical thinking is mostly up to a teacher, or better say, up to a good teacher. The question is whether personal efforts of a teacher to provide for creativity development and general educational technology to inform can work in concert?
    -
    == Dialogue as Educational Principle ==
    +
    First, knowledge and creativity as such are not one and the same. They can relate in one process and go away in another. Let's see how that works in the history and philosophy of the existing school:
     +
    <UL>
     +
    <LI>The most general idea the contemporary western school is based on interprets knowledge as the absolute objective truth.</LI>
     +
    <LI>This kind of knowledge, just by definition, requires only accurate transmission by a teacher (objectively put in position of passive transmitter) to a class (objectively put in position of passive receivers).</LI>
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    <LI>That infers an idea of lesson, a portion of knowledge to be presented, which is determined by certain period of time.</LI>
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    <LI>That infers and idea of class as group of students the lesson to be presented to simultaneously.</LI>
     +
    <LI>The entire construction is a conveyor to drug a class through a course with predetermined speed. Since students are of different abilities the conveyor must mark each by the level of ones´ achievement at special moments. This is done by grading systems.</LI>
     +
    <LI>That, in turn, shifts subjective goal of a student from knowledge to a grade itself.</LI>
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    <LI>Which, in turn, pushes their teacher to shift focus from knowledge as such to grading students.</LI>
     +
    </UL>
     +
    It is noteworthy that in above described mechanism all elements are logical. They fit the fundamental understanding of knowledge and one another! The above described construction is essentially the same for the great majority of mainstream schools worldwide. They may differ in details but not in essence.
    -
    Independent and critical thinking, creativity and responsibility are all theoretically and phenomenologically based on dialogue: Dialogue as inner speech ("Thinking is the quiet talking of the soul to itself," Plato) and as free communication between humans. That is why dialogue is the central idea and the core feature to be provided by UU. Some specific UU and also common, elsewhere developed features providing for dialogue to be utilized:
    +
    It is evident that objectively this construction and corresponding technology do not promote development of independent and critical thinking, creativity and responsibility. These could be, as we mentioned before, provided by a teacher, individually.
     +
    However, those up-to-a-teacher features, despite being in major demand, cannot normally work against the entire system. They can only work despite the system, against it. Worldwide experience for centuries tells us the same story all over: Educational innovations either get swallowed by the school, digested and turned into yet other forms of informing and training, or they bounce against the wall, break up and get thrown out. No other outcome of educational reforms and innovations could be observed since 19th century in any part of the world.
    -
    === The common ones: ===
    +
    Hence, our understanding is that modern school has to be wholly reconstructed bottom up, so that the entire system would aim directly to bringing up independent and critical thinking, creativity and responsibility. Moreover, we believe that in such a school, knowledge will be acquired along and it will be acquired willingly, deeper and more intensively than within any current system.
     +
     
     +
    == Dialogue As Educational Principle ==
     +
     
     +
    There are several fundamental ideas a new school can be built on. The most promising, in our view, is dialogue. Dialogue theoretically and in practice proves to be a foundation for independent and critical thinking, creativity and responsibility.
     +
     
     +
    There are two "modes" of dialogue: dialogue as inner speech, which actually is thinking (Plato: "thought is the silent and inner conversation of the soul with itself") and dialogue  as free communication between humans.
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    In short, that works as follows: If someone has to explain something not understood by another one, that requires to find a way to overcome misunderstanding which infers creativity.
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    The creativity is also needed for the listener, who is trying to understand. If the listener is not just to remember what is explained but to understand, that requires to recreate the subject anew.
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    Creativity, in turn, requires answers to not-so-evident questions, that is, requires independent thinking. One pulls another in. And if we make a step back to the goal of the conversation when I, who tries to explain something, need to understand what exactly you do not understand in my explanation, we already in the realm of critical thinking.
     +
     
     +
    What about responsibility? It is also here because if I am looking for the right argumentation that means I took upon myself responsibility for it. Another face of responsibility shows up in the very beginning, it is for my interlocutor. If I haven't taken the responsibility for her I would not even started talking! Remember, we discuss free communication.
     +
     
     +
    All that said easily translates from discussion to thinking. In thinking I am responsible for myself to move from hypothesis to certainty, from fantasy to idea, from opinion to understanding. I need to be creative to come up with  these starting points and very critical about them and myself so that not to be satisfied with opinions, fantasies and hypotheses but proceed to understanding of the truth and reality.
     +
     
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    That is why we take dialogue as the central idea and the core feature of UU.
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    In order to provide that we develop several unique features and are going to utilize many available tools developed by others and useful to this effect.
     +
     
     +
    === The common features ===
    <UL>
    <UL>
    -
    <LI>A system of communication protocols in UMO (User Manageable Object, see below) studies or development.</LI>
    +
    <LI>A set of communication protocols to be used in development and studies of User Manageable Objects (UMO, see below).</LI>
    -
    <LI>Overall open source type of the courses and other educational units created within UU framework.</LI>
    +
    <LI>Overall open source type of the UMOs, including courses and other educational units created within UU framework.</LI>
    -
    <LI>Various feedback tools on courses, single topics, problems, problem solutions, authors, and so forth.</LI>
    +
    <LI>System features to provide collaborative UMO creation and studies.</LI>
     +
    <LI>Rich feedback environment</LI>
    </UL>
    </UL>
    -
    === The specific ones: ===
    +
    === The unique features ===
    <UL>
    <UL>
    -
    <LI>An UMO Explanation for a Topic. Unlimited number of Explanations can be created in parallel, that is, an author may use different explanations, including those, which contradict one another. Such an approach is traditionally seen unacceptable. In our view,  on the contrary, dramatically different explanations of the same subject provoke questions and doubts and lead to independent thinking. This feature can also be used for explanations on different levels of generalization. This feature allows to bring dialogue into traditionally hierarchical courses.</LI>
    +
    <LI>An UMO Explanation. Unlimited number of Explanations can be  
    -
    <LI>An UMO Juxtaposition. This object is to join other UMOs based on relationships between ideas, such contradiction, complementation, similarity, discrepancy, etc.</LI>
    +
    created in parallel, that is, an author may use different explanations,  
    -
    <LI>An UMO Technology reflects certain understanding of an educational process and school construction as a whole. That presupposes development of a unique educational systems and hence brings forward the idea of dialogue in the entire educational environment. Technology adds specific features to default UMOs.</LI>
    +
    including those, which contradict one another. Such an approach is traditionally  
    -
    <LI>System features to provide collaborative UMO creation and studies.</LI>
    +
    seen unacceptable. In our view,  on the contrary, dramatically different  
     +
    explanations of the same subject provoke questions and doubts and lead to  
     +
    independent thinking. UMO Explanation allows to bring dialogue into
     +
    traditionally hierarchical courses. This UMO can also be used for explanations on  
     +
    different levels of generalization.</LI>
     +
    <LI>An UMO Juxtaposition. This object is to put together other UMOs based on  
     +
    relationships between ideas, such as contradiction, complementarity, similarity,  
     +
    discrepancy, etc.</LI>
     +
    <LI>An UMO Technology reflects certain understanding of an educational process  
     +
    and school construction as a whole. That presupposes development of a unique  
     +
    educational systems and hence brings forward the idea of dialogue in the entire  
     +
    educational environment. Technology adds specific features to default UMOs.</LI>
     +
    </UL>
     +
     
     +
    == A few particular goals in works ==
     +
    Beside many UU features we want to emphasize the following in respect of the ideas of the dialogue and whole educational technology:
     +
    <UL>
     +
    <LI>Plain promotion of those ideas. Wherein, the dialogue is to be promoted in two aspects: First, a specific school based on dialogue entirely; Second, dialogue in entire educational system as a social institution</LI>
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    <LI>Tools to support schools oriented on the above ideas</LI>
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    <LI>Tools to support virtual dialogical courses</LI>
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    <LI>Tools to add dialogical features to other educational units</LI>
    </UL>
    </UL>
    == General Features ==
    == General Features ==
    === Required Properties ===
    === Required Properties ===
    -
     
    +
    To be created an UMO requires the following properties:
    -
    <OL type="a">To be created an UMO requires the following properties:
    +
    <OL type="a">
    -
    <LI>title</LI>
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    <LI>Title</LI>
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    <LI>subject</LI>
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    <LI>Subject</LI>
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    <LI>author(s).  In case the author is unknown, the Public is set as the author and presenter is required</LI>
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    <LI>Author(s).  In case the author is unknown, the Public is set as the author and presenter is required</LI>
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    <LI>a child UMO and its presenter, if required</LI>
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    <LI>A child UMO and its presenter, if required</LI>
    -
    <LI>type</LI>
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    <LI>Type</LI>
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    <LI>date of creation. The creation date, type, and author are set when an UMO is created and never change, unless a dispute of authorship arises. In this case UU instance administrative board sets the authors as following: <Author 1 in dispute with Author 2></LI>
    +
    <LI>Date of creation. The creation date, type, and author are set when an UMO is created and never change, unless a dispute of authorship arises. In this case UU instance administrative board sets the authors as following: <Author 1 in dispute with Author 2></LI>
    -
    <LI>a published UMO has also a date of publication. A publication date is set when UMO is published that locks UMO in the published state.</LI>
    +
    </OL>
    </OL>
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    A published UMO has also a date of publication. A publication date is set when UMO is published that locks UMO in the published state.
    === Optional properties ===
    === Optional properties ===
    <OL type="a">
    <OL type="a">
    -
    <LI>an UMO may or may not have a description</LI>
    +
    <LI>Description</LI>
    <LI>Custom properties can be created for any UMO for storing some special information that may be represented as pairs of names and values. Every property has a type and a string value. Property type defines property name and a type of UMO the property can be used with. Properties can be used for searching.</LI>
    <LI>Custom properties can be created for any UMO for storing some special information that may be represented as pairs of names and values. Every property has a type and a string value. Property type defines property name and a type of UMO the property can be used with. Properties can be used for searching.</LI>
    <LI>Keywords are made of UMO content title and description. Keywords can be extracted by the system when UMO content is created or modified and added by the author manually. Keywords are indexed to make keyword-based search faster.</LI>
    <LI>Keywords are made of UMO content title and description. Keywords can be extracted by the system when UMO content is created or modified and added by the author manually. Keywords are indexed to make keyword-based search faster.</LI>
    </UL>
    </UL>
    </LI>
    </LI>
    -
    <LI>Rating. An UMO can be rated by users.</LI>
    +
    <LI>Rating by users.</LI>
    </OL>
    </OL>
    </UL>
    </UL>
    === Stamp of Authenticity ===
    === Stamp of Authenticity ===
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    <UL>It says what this object is in terms of authorship:
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    SoA says what this object is in terms of authorship:
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    <LI>An original + who is the author or</LI>
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    <UL>
    -
    <LI>One derived from someone's original + who is the author and other info about the original + who is the editor or</LI>
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    <LI>That the UMO is original + who is the author or</LI>
    -
    <LI>A borrowed object + who is the author and other info about the original</LI>
    +
    <LI>The UMO is derived from someone's original + who is the author and other info about the original + who is the editor or</LI>
     +
    <LI>The UMO is borrowed object + who is the author and other info about the original</LI>
    </UL>
    </UL>
    It includes the time stamps of its creation and publication if it is published.
    It includes the time stamps of its creation and publication if it is published.
    This feature may be used to provide:
    This feature may be used to provide:
    -
    * Any number of short or detailed explanations, so that a student could use that one he needs.  
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    * Any number of short or detailed explanations, so that a student could use one he needs.  
    -
    * Different approaches for the same subject to provoke dialogue between students and critical thinking.
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    * Different approaches for the same subject to provoke critical thinking and dialogue between students.
    === Required Properties for Creation ===
    === Required Properties for Creation ===
    == Work Flow ==
    == Work Flow ==
    -
    There must be an ability for an author to implement some educational scenarios comprising instructions or procedures to folow by a student or group of students. It can be based on different psychological foundations and / or the author's experience. [It is specific type of UMO, not to study]
    +
    There must be an ability for an author to implement some educational scenarios comprising instructions or procedures to folow by a student or group of students. It can be based on different psychological foundations and / or the author's experience.
    === Required Properties for Creation ===
    === Required Properties for Creation ===
    An UMO of the course level.  It is a collection of different UMOs based on their contents and ideas they implement. Juxtaposition provides a possibility for in depth studying and understanding of fundamentals in any area of human activities. It is more a research than instructional tool. Juxtaposition provides subject for dialogue and provokes it, in the first place, while learning comes in as a side effect.
    An UMO of the course level.  It is a collection of different UMOs based on their contents and ideas they implement. Juxtaposition provides a possibility for in depth studying and understanding of fundamentals in any area of human activities. It is more a research than instructional tool. Juxtaposition provides subject for dialogue and provokes it, in the first place, while learning comes in as a side effect.
    -
    === Required Features ===
    +
    === Required Properties ===
    *Author(s) - every person contributing to the collection.  
    *Author(s) - every person contributing to the collection.  
    *Basis for collection, that is a non-empty text, a formulation of an idea.
    *Basis for collection, that is a non-empty text, a formulation of an idea.
    A user can create a custom UMO, which cannot be structured, but can have all general UMO features. Custom UMO can be included as a child in any other UMO
    A user can create a custom UMO, which cannot be structured, but can have all general UMO features. Custom UMO can be included as a child in any other UMO
    -
    * Necessary Features
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    === Required Properties ===
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    ** Name (Category)
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    * Name
    -
    ** Description
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    * Description
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    ** Child UMOs
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    -
    Custom UMO can be created if at least two child UMOs are supplied.
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    = Generic System Functions =
    = Generic System Functions =
    == Structured Shared Repository ==
    == Structured Shared Repository ==
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    * Is a very special feature of the UU. It is the repository of all created objects ever.
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    It is the repository of all created objects ever.
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    UMO gets automatically from a course into the Repository or can be created specifically for the repository depending on its author.
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    UMO gets automatically from a course into the Repository or can be created specifically for the Repository.
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    * A UMO can get in one out of three storages:
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    * The repository consists of three storages:
    ** Featured Storage
    ** Featured Storage
    ** General Storage
    ** General Storage
    ** Disagreement Storage
    ** Disagreement Storage
    -
    === Catalog ===
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    === Catalogue ===
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    All of above repositories will be presented to user as catalogues.
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    All of above repositories will be presented to a user as catalogues.
    Catalogues themselves are browse-able tree-like sets of categories <ref>This has nothing to do with parent-child relationships of UMOs</ref> based around
    Catalogues themselves are browse-able tree-like sets of categories <ref>This has nothing to do with parent-child relationships of UMOs</ref> based around
    subject matter and also based on UMO authors.
    subject matter and also based on UMO authors.
    === Featured Storage ===
    === Featured Storage ===
    This is repository of shared objects with high ratings. Formulae for object ratings are TBD.
    This is repository of shared objects with high ratings. Formulae for object ratings are TBD.
    -
    Following categories are available. Each category may have its own separate rating formula.
    +
    Following categories to be provided, each may having a different rating formula.
    <OL>
    <OL>
    <LI> Classical problems
    <LI> Classical problems
    <LI> Classical texts
    <LI> Classical texts
    <LI> Border line science-to-life problems
    <LI> Border line science-to-life problems
    -
    <LI> Games
     
    <LI> Teaching techniques
    <LI> Teaching techniques
    <LI> Work Flow
    <LI> Work Flow
    -
    <LI> Explanation
    +
    <LI> Faculties
    -
    <LI> Exercise
    +
    </OL>
    </OL>
    === Possibility to link any unit to any course ===
    === Possibility to link any unit to any course ===
    -
     
    -
    (For Open server only)
     
    Each entity in course can be included into any other  
    Each entity in course can be included into any other  
    attribution to authors and sources.
    attribution to authors and sources.
    -
    === Tools to make turning multiple courses into one easier ===  
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    === Tools to turn multiple courses into one ===  
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    -
    (For Open server only)
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    May include tools for analyzing tree structures, and  
    May include tools for analyzing tree structures, and  
    -
    pointing out similarities to authors, etc.  
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    pointing out similarities to authors, etc.
    === Locking-unlocking for editing ===
    === Locking-unlocking for editing ===
    1. Voting: on courses, problems, authors, messages, etc.
    1. Voting: on courses, problems, authors, messages, etc.
    -
    2. Functional: on people, participating in through subject chess mastership type rating
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    2. Functional: on people, chess mastership type rating
    === General user rate formula ===
    === General user rate formula ===
    == Communication Tools ==
    == Communication Tools ==
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    === We intend to use all available Open Source communication tools ===
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    === List of tools, including but not limited to: ===
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    === List of tools ===
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    * Blogs
    * Blogs
    * Message Boards
    * Message Boards
    -
     
    -
    * Other
     
    === Object Rating ===
    === Object Rating ===
    == Statistics/Demographics ==
    == Statistics/Demographics ==
    -
    * Each UMO bears publically accessible statistics of:
    +
    Each UMO bears publically accessible statistics of:
    1. Visiting
    1. Visiting
    == Group Admin. Tools ==
    == Group Admin. Tools ==
    -
    * This section supposed to be developed (but is not yet) in order for UU to be used by groups and organizations of any type.
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    TBD
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    * We need some form, posiibly wiki, to get requests from organizations about this section
    +
    == Search Engine & Lists ==
    == Search Engine & Lists ==
    = Business Assumptions =
    = Business Assumptions =
    -
    == Open Server ==  
    +
    == UU is a Software as Service which is supposed to work as an Open Server ==
    <OL>
    <OL>
    == Proprietary Server ==
    == Proprietary Server ==
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    * The role of the Proprietary server is in discussion. Our thinking was to contrast two servers in order to prove advantages of the open one. Still, we are not sure we need a proprietary server at all. For the moment it is thought to be as follows:
    -
    * An author can create here a "closed source" course, which means that neither course, nor any of its object can be used by another author.
    +
    * An author can create here a "closed" course, which means that neither course, nor any of its objects can be used by another author without the creator's permission.
    * The Proprietary Server is a paid service.
    * The Proprietary Server is a paid service.
    -
    * If an author copies a course from the Open Server on the Proprietary one this does not affect in any way the prototype or its usage on the Open Server. All proper attributes are required like in all other cases.
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    * If an author copies a course or any other UMO from the Open Server on the Proprietary one: First, this does not affect in any way the prototype or its usage on the Open Server; Second, all proper attributions to the open prototype are enforced.
    -
     
    +
    -
    * The same applies to any object created at the Open Server and copied to the Proprietary Server: free usage of the prototype on the Open Server goes on unaffected.
    +
    -
    * Any object created at the Prprietay Server can be removed by its author at his own discretion.
    +
    * Any object created at the Proprietary Server can be removed by its author at her own discretion.

    Current revision